Bayeux Tapestry

The Huscarls (or Housecarls) were an elite military organization of Anglo-Danish warriors, that served as the guards and professional soldiers of the late Anglo-Saxon kings of England.

Founded by Canute the Great, the Danish ruler of England in the early 11th century, the Huscarls were modeled upon the Jomsvikings; another elite Viking military society of the age. In fact the original Huscarls were built around a nucleus of Jomsvikings who had come to England years earlier under the famous Viking leader, Thorkell the Tall.

Canute established them as a permanent body of professional warriors, originally between 3,000 and 4,000 strong. They attended the king, and were maintained in 3 corps: two stationed around London, the third in the north near York. They were further divided into crews to man the 40 longships maintained from Canute onward, as a royal navy. Thus the Huscarls formed a nucleus for any English national force, both on land and sea.

The corps was maintained by a special tax, on each “hide” of land. In later days, individual Huscarls were granted land of their own, which they lived upon and oversaw. Feudalism was spreading to England from the continent; and had the Norman Conquest not interrupted their evolution, in time the Huscarls would likely have assumed most aspects of the feudal chivalry found elsewhere; becoming England’s version of the Feudal knight.

Each Huscarl was armed as an elite viking warrior of the time: mail shirt, conical helmet (without horns!!!!), shield, sword, spear, and axe. Their sword hilts and axe blades were famously gilded with gold; a symbol of their elite status! Like the Jomsvikings, the Huscarls maintained a rigorous code of conduct; and kept strict discipline both in camp and in the field.

In battle, they usually fought around the king or earl’s banner, in the center of the army. Or, alternatively, formed across the entire front, the hard edge of the battle array; backed-up by the less reliable and poorer armed Fyrdmen.

Under Canute, the Huscarls were mostly Danes; and served to guarantee Canute’s hold on England. But upon the end of his dynasty, and the return of Edward the Confessor to the throne, many of them enlisted as “household troops” among the various great magnates of England. The largest group served under the Earl of Wessex, maintained by Earl Godwin and his sons Harold, Tostig, Gyrth, and Leofwyn. In their struggles against Edward and his Normanization of England, the Huscarls played a key role in maintaining the Earl’s position as the shadow government of England.

Godwin died, and Harold Godwinson became the “strongman” behind the English throne. In 1062–63 he led his Huscarls into Wales, against Gruffydd ap Llywelyn of Gwynedd. The Huscarls proved a hard foe, and the campaign ended with Gruffydd’s defeat and death in 1063.

When  Harold became king of England  he had an estimated 3,000 Huscarls to serve in his struggle in the Royal Sweepstakes of 1066!

When Harald Hardrada, King of Norway invaded England in September, landing near York; Harold marched north with his Huscarls to battle that great Viking hero. At the Battle of Stamford Bridge on 25 September 1066, the Norse warriors gave as good as they got, cutting down many of Harold’s Huscarls. No actual casualty count exists, but as many as a quarter of the elite warriors may have been cut down before victory was won.

No sooner had the north been secured than word came that William of Normandy had landed in Kent; and was ravishing the land. Harold forced-marched the weary Huscarls to first London, then (together with the Fyrd of southeastern England) marched south to meet the Normans at Senlac Hill.

At the Battle of Hastings the Huscarls formed the iron core of the Anglo-Saxon army. All day long they battled valiantly against the Norman invaders. Time-and-again they repulsed charging horse or Norman foot-sergeants. But the combination of archery and shock cavalry charge eventually wore down their shieldwall, and Harold was slain late in the day. The surviving Huscarls retreated north into the wood behind Senlac Hill. As darkness closed on the battlefield, they dealt the over-bold Norman pursuers a bloody nose at a ravine called the “Malfosse”; before escaping the field.

After Hastings, the corps was disbanded: William had little need for an Anglo Saxon military caste. So, like many of the Saxon nobility, they left England in large numbers; emigrating to Scandinavia and Russia, where they found service with the various rulers of the land.

A large portion took service with the Byzantine Empire, enlisting in mass in the Varangian Guard. In fact Englishmen soon replaced Scandinavians as the largest ethnic group within the elite Guard; and remained so until the 15th century.

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  6. My only slight disagreement with this superb article is that it is unlikely that Harold ll’s Huscarls were force-marched from York back to London. They would have ridden (both ways – there and back) not marched. There is even some evidence to show that they may have fought against Hardrada while mounted.

    • barrycjacobsen says:

      Thank you Helen. Good point! They did likely ride, though that too will wear you out (especially if you aren’t real cavalrymen, used to living in the saddle).

      The evidence for their fighting mounted is in King Haralds Saga, yes? I think that account faulty; Snorri Sturlson confusing Stamford Bridge with Hastings. First, there is the similarity between Harald being struck in the throat with an arrow, and Harold Godwinson being struck in the eye with an arrow atop Senlac Hill. There is also the obvious comparison with the charging Norman knights and the Huscarls in Sturlson’s account. Since there is no evidence for this in either Viking or previous Anglo-Saxon history (despite my favorite fiction author, Bernard Cornwell’s perversely repeated claims to the contrary in his “Saxon Chronicles”), to my knowledge.

  7. Martin Lake says:

    There is a tradition that some of the English exiles established a colony in the region of the Crimea.

    • barrycjacobsen says:

      I have read that online before. Can you direct me to the evidence, Martin?

      • Peter Raftos says:

        There is a good general article . New England (Latin: Nova Anglia) was a colony allegedly founded in the mid-to-late 11th century by English refugees fleeing William the Conqueror. Its existence is only attested in two sources, dating from the 13th and 14th centuries, the French Chronicon Universale Anonymi Laudunensis and the Icelandic Játvarðar Saga. They tell the story of a journey from England through the Mediterranean Sea that led to Constantinople, where the English refugees fought off a siege by “heathens” and were rewarded by the Byzantine Emperor Alexius I Comnenus. A group of them were given land in the north-east of the Black Sea, reconquering it and renaming their territory “New England”. Though these sources are late, New England is thought by some historians to be based on a reality.

      • barrycjacobsen says:

        Fascinating! Thanks Peter!

  8. Pingback: ELITE WARRIORS OF HISTORY: THE VARANGIAN GUARD | The Deadliest Blogger: Military History Page

  9. Peter Raftos says:

    The Greek would be Nέα Αγγλία – Nea Anglia.

  10. Decimus says:

    Praetor–here’s a good discussion of the “malfosse incident”


  12. RT says:

    You don’t seem to mention that the Danish institution of the Huscarl was also known in Norway, not just Danish England. They are last recorded in the 1100’s in Denmark.

    • barrycjacobsen says:

      I’m not aware of exactly the same institution in any other northern country. The kings of Norway, Denmark and Sweden maintained a bodyguard of hearth-troops (hirð, Hirdmen). But not the size of what Canute established in England (which was a very rich country by comparison to any of the Scandinavian countries at the time). A few hundred were the numbers of the Norse king’s hirthmen; not several thousand.


  14. Karan Dash says:

    Thanks for the article. I am aware of ‘New Anglia’ but you write ‘they left England in large numbers; emigrating to Scandinavia and Russia, where they found service with the various rulers of the land.’ Is New Anglia what you mean by ‘Russia’? If not, any chance you can direct me to a source reference please.

    • barrycjacobsen says:

      Karan –
      Thank you for your comment. I don’t mention a “New Anglia” in my article. One of my readers does in the Comments section, and another lists two references. I have not looked into this issue; and if you are interested I suggest you begin by following those suggested references and see where your research takes you. I would be interested in hearing back from you, on what you find.
      Thanks again!

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